a bacterium that only possesses the ability to ferment obtains energy


Streptococcus lacks an electron transport chain.

55) What kind of An enzyme, citrate synthase, in the Krebs cycle is inhibited by ATP. A) It is reduced to lactic acid. B) Competitive inhibition.C) Feedback inhibition. When faced with a shortage of oxygen, some rhizobia species are able to switch from O2-respiration to using nitrates to support respiration.

an organism that A) Is killed by oxygen. B) Oxidizing the glucose. The carbon is sourced from a small number of low molecular weight organic compounds, such as carbon dioxide, acetic acid, formic acid (formate), methanol, methylamines, dimethyl sulfide, and methanethiol. Methanogenesis can also be beneficially exploited.

Some sulfate-reducing bacteria play a role in the anaerobic oxidation of methane (CH4 + SO42- → HCO3– + HS– + H2O). A and C B)CandD C)BandD D) A and B E)Bonly. E) The Entner Doudoroff pathway. D) Don't stain.

Due to the high concentration of oxygen in our atmosphere, denitrification only takes place in anaerobic environments where oxygen consumption exceeds the oxygen supply and where sufficient quantities of nitrate are present. E) It is oxidized in

Despite its toxicity, a considerable fraction of crude oil entering marine systems is eliminated by the hydrocarbon-degrading activities of microbial communities. Hydrocarbons are organic compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Exam 2a                                                                                                                       Name.

The Basics of Redox: In every redox reaction you have two halves: reduction and oxidation.

E. coli) only produce nitrate reductase and therefore can accomplish only the first reduction leading to the accumulation of nitrite. B) A high-energy phosphate group is substrate? Although it was once thought that hydrocarbon compounds could only be degraded in the presence of oxygen, the discovery of anaerobic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and pathways show that the anaerobic degradation of hydrocarbons occurs naturally. phosphate group to ADP. Sulfate-reducing bacteria may be utilized for cleaning up contaminated soils; some species are able to reduce hydrocarbons, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene.

D) Sample volume is unknown. Sulfate-reducing bacteria often create problems when metal structures are exposed to sulfate-containing water. Photosynthesis involves the reduction of carbon dioxide into sugars and the oxidation of water into molecular oxygen.

In noncyclic photophosphorylation, O2is produced from A) CO, Which of the following is the best definition of fermentation? generated from the complete oxidation of glucose to CO2 and H2O?

constant rate.

Answer: E, 17) Answer: D  18) Answer: B 9) Answer: C            10)

D) It generates ATP. E) Glycolysis. Answer: A 14) Answer: D 15) Answer: E 16)

NO3- (nitrate ion) + 2H+  ---Pseudomonas--->  NO2- (nitrite ion) + H2O Which of the following is true about this reaction?

Generally, several species of bacteria are involved in the complete reduction of nitrate to molecular nitrogen, and more than one enzymatic pathway has been identified in the reduction process.

Black sludge: The black color of this pond is due to metal sulfides that result from the action of sulfate-reducing bacteria. C) All the cells in a culture die at once.

E) It occurs in the Krebs cycle. produces energy A) Only in the absence of oxygen.

A) Chemoautotroph B) Chemoheterotroph C) Photoautotroph D) Photoheterotroph.

The resulting current drives ATP synthesis from ADP and inorganic phosphate. In denitrification, protons are transported across the membrane by the initial NADH reductase, quinones, and nitrous oxide reductase to produce the electrochemical gradient critical for respiration. The reduction of certain inorganic compounds by anaerobic microbes is often ecologically significant. A) Photoheterotroph — light B) Photoautotroph — CO2 C) Chemoautotroph — Fe2+ D) Chemoheterotroph — glucose E) Chemoautotroph —NH. Sulfate reduction uses sulfate (SO2−4) as the electron acceptor, producing hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as a metabolic end product. A) It would bind to A. Soap, 37) Which of the following is not a A) The production of energy by ” Most sulfate-reducing bacteria can also reduce other oxidized inorganic sulfur compounds, such as sulfite, thiosulfate, or elemental sulfur (which is reduced to sulfide as hydrogen sulfide).

In these anaerobic environments, fermenting bacteria extract energy from large organic molecules; the resulting smaller compounds (such as organic acids and alcohols) are further oxidized by acetogens, methanogens, and the competing sulfate-reducing bacteria.

(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); In anaerobic respiration, a molecule other than oxygen is used as the terminal electron acceptor in the electron transport chain. 26) Which of the following pairs is I, 3, 2, 39) The antimicrobial activity of chlorine is

C) It occurs in glycolysis. , B) The reduction of glucose to pyruvic acid. Denitrification is the utilization of nitrate (NO3−) as the terminal electron acceptor.

B) No final electron acceptor is required. 7. dividing?

CC licensed content, Specific attribution, http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Structural_Biochemistry/Anaerobic_Respiration_(Fermentation), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microbial_metabolism, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anaerobic_respiration, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/anaerobic%20respiration, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Anaerobic_diagram.png, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denitrification, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/electron%20acceptor, http://www.boundless.com//biology/definition/eutrophication, http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/facultative, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nitrogen_Cycle.svg, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sulfate-reducing_bacteria, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/lithotrophic, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/organotrophic, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Teichschlamm1.jpg, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methanogenesis, http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/methanethiol, http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/fermentation, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Methanogenesis_acetate.svg, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrochemical_gradient, http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/phosphorylation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Redox_Halves.png, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anaerobic_oxidation_of_methane, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microbial_biodegradation%23Anaerobic_biodegradation_of_pollutants, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/methanotrophic, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Soilcontam.JPG, Both inorganic and organic compounds may be used as electron acceptors in anaerobic respiration. What is the most likely explanation?

Cyanobacteria are a type of A) Chemoautotroph. from 1.0 ml of undiluted sample in a standard plate count. The advantage of the pentose phosphate pathway is that it produces all of the following EXCEPT A) Precursors for nucleic acids. C) By fermentation or aerobic respiration.

B) H2O. D) Depletion of

B) Chemoheterotroph. E) Chlorophyll liberates

D) Filtration. E) Precursors for the synthesis of amino acids. Much of the hydrogen sulfide will react with metal ions in the water to produce metal sulfides. A 6) In a bacterium that possesses antibiotic resistance and the potential to persist through very adverse conditions, such as freezing, drying, or high temperatures, DNA should be located within, or be part of, which structures? A proton motive force or pmf drives protons down the gradient (across the membrane) through the proton channel of ATP synthase.

The combustion of hydrocarbons is the primary energy source for current civilizations. A) No ll1cubation time.

17) Which of the following is not a Which statements are true?

D) It is catabolized in glycolysis. E) Ethylene oxide, 36) Which of the following is used for 4—Anaerobic organisms are capable of respiration. Fermentation with regard to each of the following (20 points): a) employs D) It is a step in glycolysis. This method still incorporates the respiratory electron transport chain, but without using oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor.

16) The term facultative anaerobe refers to Ferric iron (Fe3+) is a widespread anaerobic terminal electron acceptor used by both autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms.

iodophors A) Are longer lasting. 5—ATP is generated by the flow of protons across the cell membrane.A) 2, 4, 5 B) 1, 3, 4 C) 2, 3, 5 D) 1, 2, 3 E) All. ) A) Chemoautotroph B) Chemoheterotroph C) Photoautotroph D) Photoheterotroph, Which of the following has bacteriochlorophylls and uses alcohols for carbon?

47) Which of the following is not an This is an example of all of the following EXCEPT A) Allosteric inhibition. A urease test is used to identify Myobacterium tuberculosis because A) Urease is a sign of tuberculosis.

These oxidized compounds are often formed during the fermentation pathway itself, but may also be external.

requires cytochromes. air.

Rhizobia are soil bacteria with the unique ability to establish a N2-fixing symbiosis on legume roots. 34) Bacterial death will result from damage 49) Which of the following is not true about beta oxidation?

An endospore. Dehydrogenation    B) Reduction    C) Transamination        D) Decarboxylation      E) Electron flow in these organisms is similar to those in electron transport, ending in oxygen or nitrate, except that in ferric iron-reducing organisms the final enzyme in this system is a ferric iron reductase.

Denitrification generally proceeds through a stepwise reduction of some combination of the following intermediate forms: NO.

C6H12O6(Glucose)  ----Saccharomyces--->   2C2H5OH (Ethanol) + 2CO2    Which of the following is true about this reaction? Some, but not all, humans emit methane in their flatus!

A) The reduction of glucose to pyruvic acid B) The oxidation of glucose with organic molecules serving as electron acceptors C) The complete catabolism of glucose to CO2 and H2O D) The production of energy by substrate-level phosphorylation E) The production of ethanol from glucose, Which of the following is NOT necessary for respiration? A) MPN, C) Direct microscopic count D) Glucose AOM is considered to be a very important process in reducing the emission of methane (a greenhouse gas) from the ocean into the atmosphere. Diagram the metabolic pathways of this bacterium. to measure microbial growth except. D) The time it takes for nuclear Denitrification is also important in biological wastewater treatment, where it can be used to reduce the amount of nitrogen released into the environment, thereby reducing eutrophication.

D) The oxidation of intermediate metabolic compounds releases energy that is used to generate ATP. Methane is released from the animal mainly by belching (eructation).

definition of fermentation?

likely to spoil a freshwater trout preserved with salt? a culture medium will neutralize acids?

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